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Management Information System(MIS) on Himalayan Database using GIS interface

 

Index:

Graphical Information

Maps

Uttarakhand: A Resource Profile

 

The present Management Information System (MIS) module represents a picture from the Himalayan Database, which is based on the available secondary data sets with the ENVIS Centre. A simple deterministic approach has been used on the present as well as historical time-series data to depict a descriptive and predictive inferences of the Himalayan districts. All the data sets have been compiled to attain the goal of MIS, which could enable one by viable information content to make better decision and future course of action.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has the innovation to support all these frameworks which supports analysis of attributes with effective visualization. GIS model has been designed to identify and display relationship between attribute data and geographical locations. As the present model supports the information system of a particular geographical area, namely the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), the locational relationship is very much needed to map the distribution of various attributes throughout the region. Keeping in view of the spread of IHR in India (about 5.3 lakh km2) the analysis has been restricted only to district level data. The IHR spreads on 95 districts covering 12 administrative states/regions in India. The demographic data of these districts have been compiled from Census 2001 and selected parameters of previous census reports, whereas agricultural statistics have been used to map the land use category for them. The district boundaries (based on SoI maps) are linked with the attribute data for effective visualization and classification of parameters across the IHR.

Externalization is capturing information in an external repository and organizing it according to classification system, and internalization is extracting knowledge from the external repository and learning it to identity what is relevant to the knowledge seen. These two basic principles have been used to produce tactical information. The extracted information is reformatted and presented in suitable manner such as graphs/charts (see Graphical Information) and locational (spatial) distribution (see Maps)  with some level of interpretation.

The Graphical Information presents the classified data (based on values) and the number of data points satisfying each class. The contribution of each class to the total population is depicted by the percentage share of the class to the sampled data. The closed-ended boundaries have been used to classify data points. In most cases the range of classes are uneven and less scattered in more congested data points. This will show the acute dispersion of most of the sample, whereas larger ranges are used to show few data points satisfying the class/range. On the other hand maps depict the simple distribution of classified data across the IHR districts.

Lastly a resource profile of a state (namely, Uttarakhand) has been prepared to incorporate a statehood MIS model.  The state profile has been prepared by comprising districts of Uttarakhand, to show how effectively the attribute data could be linked with spatial data (district boundaries) to visualize the state resources across the districts. 

List of IHR districts (Code-District) as on 2001:

Jammu & Kashmir

1 LEH

2 KARGIL

3 KUPWARA

4 BARAMULA

5 PUNCH

6 RAJAOURI

7 SRINAGAR

8 BADGAM

9 PULWAMA

10 ANANTANAG

11 DODA

12 UDHAMPUR

13 JAMMU

14 KATHUA

 

Himachal Pradesh

15 CHAMBA

16 LAHUL & SPITI

17 KULLU

18 KANGRA

19 HAMIRPUR

20 UNA

21 BILASPUR

22 MANDI

23 SHIMLA

24 SOLAN

25 KINNAUR

26 SIRMAUR

 

Uttarakhand

27 UTTARKASHI

28 DEHRADUN

29 TEHRIGARHWAL

30 CHAMOLI

31 PAURI GARHWAL

32 ALMORA

33 PITHORAGARH

34 NAINITAL

35 U.S. NAGAR

36 CHAMPAWAT

37 BAGESHWAR

38 RUDRAPRAYAG

39 HARIDWAR

 

Sikkim

40 NORTH SIKKIM

41 WEST SIKKIM

42 SOUTH DISTRICT

43 EAST SIKKIM

 

West Bengal hills

44 DARJILING

 

Meghalaya

45 WEST GARO HILLS

46 EAST GARO HILLS

47 SOUTH GARO HILLS

48 WEST KHASI HILLS

49 EAST KHASI HILLS

50 RI BHOI

51 JAINTIA HILLS

 

Assam hills

52 KARBI ANGLONG

53 NORTH CACHAR HILLS

 

Tripura

54 NORTH TRIPURA

55 WEST TRIPURA

56 SOUTH TRIPURA

57 DHALAI

 

Mizoram

58 CHIPTUIPUI WEST

59 CHIPTUIPUI EAST

60 LUNGLEI

61 AIZAWL

62 AIZAWL EAST

63 AIZAWL WEST

64 AIZAWL NORT

65 AIZAWL SOUTH

 

Manipur

66 CHURACHANDPUR

67 CHANDEL

68 SENAPATI

69 UKHRUL

70 THOUBAL

71 IMPHAL WEST

72 IMPHAL EAST

73 BISHNUPUR

74 TAMENGLONG

 

Nagaland

75 KOHIMA

76 DIMAPUR

77 PHEK

78 ZUNHEBOTO

79 WOKHA

80 MOKOKCHUNG

81 TUENSANG

82 MON

 

Arunachal Pradesh

83 TIRAP

84 CHANGLANG

85 LOHIT

86 DIBANG VALLEY

87 EAST SIANG

88 UPPER SIANG

89 WEST SIANG

90 UPPER SUBANSIRI

91 LOWER SUBANSIRI

92 PAPUM PARE

93 EAST KAMENG

94 WEST KAMENG

95 TAWANG

 

 

 

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Graphical Information

Land use Pattern of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR)
Population Size
Decadel Growth Rate
Population Density
Sex Ratio
Literacy Rate
 

Inferences

Changing trends of Population Growth Rate & Sex Ratio (1951-2001)
Changing trends of Population Growth & Sex Ratio with respect to Literacy Rate

 

Major Land Use Pattern of IHR

Forests contribute the major land use class of IHR, as more than 50% of total geographical area is covered by forests, which is much higher than the country’s forest cover area (19.39%). On the other hand the net sown area of the region is much less (about 10.76%) as compared to the national average (46.84%). The other major land use classes of the IHR are barren and unculturable land, permanent pasture, culturable wastelands etc.

Major landuse classification in the IHR

 

 

Population Size  

Population size of most of the districts (59 out of total 95 districts) is less than 4 lakhs, and they together contribute merely 27% of total population. On the other hand only 10 populated districts (population size > 10 lakhs) contribute about 32% of total IHR population. Most of them are having urban pockets at foothill/tarai area or respective state capitals.

  Distribution of varied population sized districts across IHR     Cumulative distribution according to incremental populous districts

 

Decadal Growth Rate

Decadal growth rate (1991-2001) of IHR is marginally higher (25.43%) as compared to the national average (21.35%). The growth rate of 80% IHR districts fall between 10 and 40, which cover 91.58% of total IHR population. The highest growth rate is recorded in Nagaland (64.41) while Tripura recorded the minimum (15.74).

    Growth rate of population across the IHR districts

 

 

Population Density  

Population density of IHR as a whole is very less (74 person/km2) as compared to the population density of the country (324 person/km2) according to 2001 census report. Although there are 8 districts having a very high density (>500 person/km2) in contrast to 46 low density (<100 person/km2) districts. The distribution of population is extremely uneven, as 50% of total IHR districts (of low density) contribute only about 22% of IHR's total population, and remaining 50% districts (of high density) contribute rest 78% of population. 

Sex Ratio 

Almost all the states of IHR exhibit an increase sex ratio during last five decades, and their average ratio (940 females/1000 males) is higher than the national average (933 females/1000 males). The sex ratio of about 60% of IHR population falls between 900 and 1000. Manipur recorded the highest average sex ratio (978 females/1000 males) while Sikkim recorded the lowest (875 females/1000 males).

 

Literacy Rate  

literate.GIF (25852 bytes)

The percentage of literates in IHR (about 67%) is marginally higher than the national average (65.38%) as recorded in 2001 census. Majority of the districts have literacy rates higher than the region's average. The literacy rate of more than 50% of IHR population is between 70 to 90%.  Mizoram recroded the highest literacy rate (88.49%), while Jammu & Kashmir recorded the lowest literacy (54.46%) among IHR states.

 

Decadal Growth & Sex Ratio

The annual average exponential growth rate of IHR is 2.12 during last five decades (1951-2001). Majority of the Himalayan states exhibit the common trends except three north-eastern states, viz. Nagaland, Tripura, and Hills of Assam. These three states are situated in border area, and growth of human population is much affected by highly exposed international boundaries. Tripura and Assam Hills experienced a heavy growth rate in early post independence India, which was steadily decreased towards a marginally lower growth rate in early 1980s. And now (as per 2001 Census report), Tripura recorded the lowest ever decadel growth rate (15.74) among other Himalayan states. In contrast Nagaland is showing the steady increase in growth rate during last four decades, and touched the alarming high (64.41) in 1991-2001, though the state having a lower birth rate (19.2 per 1000) in the region. 

              The sex ratio of IHR is quite impressive, as compared to the national average (933 females/1000 males). Almost all the states exhibit an increase in sex ratio during the last 5 decades, with a marginal decrease in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Sikkim during the last decade, whereas West Bengal Hills and Tripura show a steady increase in sex ratio during last 5 decades.

 

Percentage change in Population Growth & Sex Ratio with respect to Literacy rate

 

The causal relationship between the literacy rate and growth rate of human population depicts a correlation between literacy rate and percentage change in decadal growth rate. The marginal negative slope of the linear regression indicates that the variables are inversely proportional, and majority of the IHR districts are  satisfying the fact. Whereas there is no significant correlation is exists between literacy rate and changing rate of sex ratio, as the figures of all districts are scattered dispersely.

 

 

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Maps

Population Size
Decadel Growth Rate
Population Density
Literacy Rate
Sex Ratio
Sex Ratio (0-6 yr. age group)

Change in Literacy Level
Change in Population Density

 

 Population Size

The IHR shows a thin and dispersed human population as compared to the national figures. The population size (total number of human population) of most of the IHR districts are less than 4 lakhs, and fall below the average of the region. There are 10 populated districts (population size>10 lakhs) in the region, among them Darjeeling (West Bengal Hills) is highest populated (16,05,900 according to 2001 census) district in the IHR. On the other hand Upper Siang is the smallest district in terms of population size with a total population of only 33,140 persons according to 2001 census.

Distribution of human population across the IHR districts

 

 

 Decadal Growth  

The decadal growth rate (1991-2001) of human population in IHR recorded as 25.43% in 2001 Census report, which is higher than the country’s average growth rate (21.34%). Among 95 districts of IHR, the growth rate of most of the districts fall above the average mark of the IHR. However,  a negative growth rate (-3.5%) has been recorded in Aizwal West in Mizoram, whereas Wokha in Nagaland recorded the highest growth rate (95.01%) in the IHR.

Decadal growth rate (1991-2001) of population in the IHR

 

 

 Population Density

The population density of IHR (74 persons/km2) is much less than the national average (324 persons/km2) according to 2001 Census report. And this density of human population varied widely throughout the region. Some urbanized districts and state capitals have recorded an higher density (> 500 persons/km2) of human population, whereas the Arunachal Pradesh as a state recorded a density of only 13 persons/km2. In district level data, Lahul & Spiti in Himachal Pradesh has recorded the lowest population density of 2 persons/km2, whereas Imphal (West) in Manipur is the most densely populated district (847 persons/km2) in the IHR.

Diverse population density across the IHR districts

 

 

 Literacy Rate

The literacy rate of IHR (about 67%) is marginally higher than the literacy rate to the country (65.38%) as recorded in 2001. Moreover, majority of districts having a literacy rate higher than the regional average of IHR. Statehood Mizoram has recorded the highest literacy (88.49%), whereas Jammu & Kashmir has recorded the least (54.46%) among all IHR states. In district level, Aizwal (in Mizoram) has recorded the highest (96.64%) and Badgam (in Jammu & Kashmir) recorded the lowest (39.54%) literacy in the IHR.

Literacy distribution across the IHR districts

 

 

 Sex Ratio

The average sex ratio of IHR (940 females/1000 males) is marginally higher than the national average (933). This sex composition is widely varied throughout the region. Two states in the north-east have recorded the extreme disparity, as Manipur recorded the highest (978) while Sikkim recorded the lowest (875) in the region. In district level data, Almora (Uttarakhand) has recoded the highest (1147 females/1000 males) in the IHR and West Kameng (Arunachal Pradesh) has recorded the lowest (749 females/1000 males) in the region as per 2001 census.

Distribution of sex ratio across the IHR districts

 

 

 Sex Ratio (0-6 yr. age group)

Though the sex ratio of IHR has shown an impressive picture as compared to the national average, but the ratio among the children of 0-6 year age group is decreasing. Two states, viz.  Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand are the worst effected states in terms of declining sex ratio among 0-6yr. age group. District level data of the sex ratio shows Jammu recorded the lowest (816), while South Sikkim recorded the highest (1036) sex ratio among 0-6yr. age group in the IHR.

Distribution of sex ratio among infants (0-6 year age group) across the IHR districts

 

 

 Change in Literacy Level

The data of literacy rate as on 1991 are not available for some of the IHR  districts. Among the available data the average change in literacy level during 1991 to 2001 is 23.8% in the IHR (excluding entire Jammu & Kashmir where the Census operation was not undertaken in 1991). The Dhalai district of Tripura recorded the minimum change (0.05%), while Ri Bhoi of Meghalaya recorded the maximum (65.46%) during the period. The percentage change in literacy level of most of the districts fall above the region average.

Percentage change in literacy level (from 199 to 2001) across the IHR districts

 

 

 Change in Population Density

The population density of IHR has increased to 74 (in 2001) from 59 persons/km2 (in 1991). The average change in population density of the IHR is 25.42% during 1991-2001. The percentage change in population density of most of the IHR districts fall above the average mark of the region. Lahul & Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh has recorded no change in the population density whereas Wokha (Nagaland) has recorded highest change (94.12%) in the IHR during 1991-2001.

Percentage change in population density (from 1991 to 2001) in the IHR districts

 

 

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 Uttarakhand: A Resource Profile

Geographical Profile

Landscape

Administrative Setup

Human Resources

Population Growth

Population Density

Change in Population Density

Sex Ratio

Sex Ratio Among 0-6yr. Age Group

Literacy Rate

Change in Literacy Level

Geographical Profile

Uttarakhand, the northern sub-region of Uttar Pradesh came into existence of as 27th State of Indian Republic on 9th November 2000. The state occupies a strategic position on the north as its boundaries touches two international borders viz. Nepal on the east and China on the north. The state is situated in Central Himalaya of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) and mostly comprises the hills of Central Himalaya. Geographically it is located between latitudes 29o5’ -31o25’N and longitudes 77o45’ - 81oE covering a geographical area of 53,485 km2

 

Uttarakhand (now Uttarakhand) – the 4th largest state in terms of total geographical area in IHR after Jammu & Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh, and Himachal Pradesh. The state is 2nd highest populous state among IHR after Jammu & Kashmir.

Landscape

The state is very rich in natural resources especially water and forests as it has many glaciers, rivers, forests, mountain peaks. The famous peaks of Uttarakhand are Nanda Devi, Kedarnath, Trishul, Bandarpunch and Mt Kamet. The major Glaciers include Gangotri, Pindari, Milam and Khatling. The Ganga, The Yamuna, Ramganga and Sharda are principal rivers of this region. Blessed with magnificent glaciers, sparkling and joyful rivers, gigantic and ecstatic  Himalayan peaks, natural biospheres, valley of flowers, skiing slopes and dense forests, this abode of Gods includes many shrines and places of pilgrimage.  Char-dhams, the four most sacred and revered Hindu temples: Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri and Yamunotri are nestled in the Mighty Mountains.

There are 17 hydro-electric projects already producing electricity and many ambitious power projects including Tehri Dam are under construciton.

Total protected wildlife area of Uttarakhand is 34,359 km2, Twelve areas - Nanda Devi national park, the Valley of Flowers (World heritage site), Gangotri national park, Govind national park, Rajaji national park, Kedarnath sanctuary, Ascot musk deer sanctuary, Mussoorie sanctuary, Binsar sanctuary, Sonnadi sanctuary and Govind sanctuary are now looked after by Uttarakhand.

Land Resources

The state exhibit a very vast area of forest cover (about 65%) of its total reporting area, whereas a very small net sown area (about 12.5%) of the state which is reducing further, at the cost of increasing fallow land and area not available for cultivation, resulting increasing pressure on the limited land resources of the state.

 

Administrative Setup

The region comprises of two administrative units viz., Garhwal (north-west portion) and Kumaon (south-east portion). The  statehood ‘Uttarakhand’ has emerged by comprising the 12 districts of  these two administrative regions and Haridwar district from Uttar Pradesh. Now the state (renamed as Uttarakhand) is having 13 districts:

Code-Districts

27 Uttarkashi

28 Dehradun

29 Tehri

30 Chamoli

31 Pauri Garhwal

32 Almora

33 Pithoragarh

34 Nainital

35 Udham Singh Nagar

36 Champawat

37 Bageshwar

38 Rudraprayag

39 Haridwar

 

Human Resources

The state occupies about 1.6% of the country’s total geographical area and contributes only about 0.83% of country’s total population depicting a smaller state in terms of population size in the country. However, the state is the second highest populous (84,79,562 as on 2001) state in the IHR (the first is Jammu & Kashmir).

 

The districts of the state situated in the foot-hills/Tarai area bordering Uttar Pradesh have shown larger size of human population as compared to the districts situated in the higher/upper ridges of Himalaya. Haridwar is the largest populous and Champawat is the least populous district in the state.

 

 

 

 

Population Growth

The growth rate of human population in Uttarakhand (20.27%) is lower than the national average (21.35%) during the period 1991-2001, while the sex ratio (964 females/1000 males) is higher than the national average. The state also exhibits a higher literacy rate (72.28) than the national average. All these facts realize the presence of a higher quality of human resource in the state.  

Almora district has recorded the minimum (3.14%), while Nainital recorded the highest (32.88%) growth rate of human population in the state during the period 1991-2001.

 

 

 

 

 

Population Density

The average population density of Uttarakhand is 159 persons/km2. But this density of the state is widely varied among districts from the average figure of the state, as Haridwar has recorded the maximum (612 persons/km2), while Uttarkashi district has recorded the minimum (37 persons/km2). 

 

Most of the population of the state is concentrated in the urban pockets of  sub-Himalayan Tarai/foot-hills area of the state. And Haridwar, Udham Singh Nagar and Dehradun districts situated in these area have recorded an higher population density of more than 400 persons/km2.

 

 

 

 

Change in Population Density

Though the state depicts a much lower population density as compared to the nation's average (324 persons/km2), the  density has changed significantly from 132 (in 1991) to 159 persons/km2 (in 2001). 

 

Nainital district has recorded the maximum increase (32.89%), while Almora recorded the minimum (3.03%) during the decade 1991-2001. The population pressure on Nainital, Udham Singh Nagar, and Haridwar districts is increasing very fast, as these districts have registered an increase of above 25% in population density during one decade.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sex Ratio

The sex ratio (no. of females per 1000 males) of the state exhibits an impressive picture (964 females per 1000 males), which is increasing further. 

 

The sex ratio of Almora district (1147 females/1000 males) is not only highest in the state but also highest  among IHR districts. In contrast Haridwar recorded the minimum (868 females/1000 males) in the state. Four districts of the state viz. Almora, Rudraprayag, Bageshwar, and Pithoragarh have recorded a very high sex ratio (>1100 females/1000 males) in 2001 census report.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sex Ratio Among 0-6yr. Age Group

The sex ratio among children (0-6 year age group) does not shows an impressive picture of the state (906, the state average) as compared to the average sex ratio (964 females/1000 males) comprising the total population of the state. As the sex ratio of the state among children has reduced to 906 (in 2001) from 948 (in 1991) and this trend implies further decrease in forthcoming decades. A significant decline of sex ratio among children might effect the total male-female ratio of the state in next few decades. 

Haridwar has recorded the worst (852), while Champawat recorded an higher sex ratio (946) among the children of 0-6 year age group in the state. 

 

 

 

Literacy Rate

The average literacy (7 years and above) of the state is 72.28% which is quite higher than the national average (65.38%).

 

Most of the districts of the state have recorded a literacy rate of more than 70%. Nainital is the highest literate district (79.6%)  followed by Dehradun (78.96%), while Haridwar is the lowest literate district (64.6%) in the state. Among males Pithoragarh district has recorded the highest (91.47%). In contrast the females of Uttarkashi district has recorded the least literacy (47.48%) in the state.

 

 

 

 

 

Change in Literacy Level

A significant increase (25.16%) has been recorded in literacy level, as it has increased to 72.28% (in 2001) from 57.75% (in 1991) in the state. Change in female literacy has significantly contributed to the total increase in literacy level of the state during 1991-2001. 

 

Uttarkashi district has recorded the highest increase in literacy level (40.97%) followed by Tehri Garhwal (38.34%), and Haridwar (34.67%) during the period.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Readings

Rao, K.S. 1997.Natural Resource Management and Development in Himalaya: recourse to issues and strategies. G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Almora, pp. 38.

Nandy, S.N., Pant, R. and Rao, K.S. 2000. Indian Himalaya: A Demographic Database. G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Almora, pp. 76

Nandy, S.N. and Rao, K.S. 2001. Census 2001: Population Dynamics of Indian Himalaya.  ENVIS Bulletin - Himalayan Ecology & Development, 9(2):1-6.

 

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