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Physiography:  Sikkim is situated in the eastern Himalaya between 88o 03' - 88 o 57' E longitude and 27 o 03' - 28 o 07' N latitude. It is a small mountain state bounded by Tibet on north, Nepal on west, Bhutan on east and West Bengal on south. India’s highest mountain peak Kangchendzonga (8,579 m), which is world’s third highest peak, rises from this state. The state extends to about 115 km from north to south and 65 km from west to east. Most of the areas of the state are snow covered throughout the year. Its unique geographical position, varied topography and high annual rainfall make the state a treasure house of flowering plants.

Sikkim at a glance

Date of Formation 16/05/1975
Geographical area (km2 7,096
Capital Gangtok
Number of districts 4
Population (2011)  6,10,577 [Males: 3,23,070; Females: 2,87,507]
Major language Lepcha, Bhutia, Nepali, Hindi and Limbu
Major rivers  Tista 
Forest cover (2013) 47.32% of total geographical area
National park Kangchendzonga 
Major wildlife sanctuaries Barsey Rhododendron, Fambong Lho
Rural population (2011) 4,56,999 [Males: 2,42,797; Females: 2,14,202]
Number of towns and villages including un-inhabited villages (2001) 9 and 452
Agricultural land (2001) 16.1% of total geographical area
Per capita income (NSDP) (1999-2000)  Rs. 9816/- (at 1993-94 prices)
Population density (2011)  86/km2
Birth rate (2009)  18.1/thousand*
Death rate (2009)  5.7/thousand*
Infant mortality rate (2009) 34/thousand*
Litrates (2011)   4,44,952 [Male: 2,51,269; Female: 1,93,683]
Literacy rate (2011)  81.42% [Male: 86.55%; Female: 75.61%]
Sex ratio (2011)  890 (females per 1000 males)
Schedule Castes and  Schedule Tribes 5.02% and  20.6% of total population respectively
Major tribal communities Bhutia (including Chumbipa, Dopthapa, Dukpa, Kagatcy, Sherpa, Tromopa, Yolmo) and Lepcha
Number of Schedule Castes  4
Number of Schedule Tribes 2
Major sources of occupation  Agriculture 
Major industries  Handloom, handicrafts, tea and watches
*Family Welfare Statistics in India 2011, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India.
External Links
  • Official website of Sikiim
  • Districts Websites of Sikkim
  • Other Important Links of Sikkim