Selected Abstracts

Compiled by D.S. Negi
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora 263 643, India.


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Abrol, D.P. 1998. Effect of climatic factors on population dynamics of Andrena flavipes pollinating apple flowers : A path analysis. Tropical Ecology, 39(1): 143-147. Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Regional Agricultural Research Station, R.S. Pura 181102, Jammu & Kashmir, India; corresponding address : 351/4, Channi Himmat Housing Colony, Jammu 180015, Jammu & Kashmir, India. [ANDRENA FLAVIPES; APPLE FLOWERS; PATH ANALYSIS; POLLINATION; WEATHER FACTORS]

The flight activity of Andrena flavipes Panzer (Hymenoptera : Andrenidae) pollinating apple flowers was related to some weather factors. The flight activity correlated positively with ambient temperature, light intensity, solar radiation, nectar-sugar concentration, soil temperature and negatively with relative humidity. Path coefficient analysis revealed whether the relationship expressed was direct or indirect. Of the six factors studied, the direct effect of ambient temperature, light intensity, solar radiation, soil temperature were positive and that of relative humidity negative. The direct effect of nectar-sugar concentration was positive and negligible.

Azhar-Hewitt, Farida 1999. Women of the high pastures and the global economy: Reflections on the impacts of modernization in the hushe valley of the Karakoram, Northern Pakistan. Mountain Research and Development, 19(2): 141-151. Department of Geography and Environmental Studies wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Ave. West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3C5, Canada. [GLOBAL ECONOMY; HOUSEHOLD; HUSHE VALLEY; LIVESTOCK]

In a Karakorum-Himalaya valley, women go to high pastures with the livestock. They possess detailed knowledge, wisdom, and skills relating to their environment. They know how to manage the resources of animals and plants which they process for subsistence, sale, and barter. They also make trips down to the village: tending their crops and caring for their household. It appears that small children, young women, and grandparents inhabit one world, while the younger men and boys live in another. This is because the men of this valley are turning to the outside world for more lucrative opportunities, abandoning their share of subsistence work. They migrate to the plains for work, or find position as porters with visiting mountaineering expeditions. This has produced a sad state of affairs for people who still believe in family values rather than individual rights, and for whom arranged marriage is an economic alliance between clans. It creates a situation in which the husband depends on his wife for sustenance, while regarding her as `backward' and `inferior'. This is the problem of women: their subservient position and forced inclusion into the capitalist system of labor-first by their own men due to the patriarchal division of labor, which turns partners and co-workers into master and servant; then by the male elite of the village, who maintain and confirm this division; then by bureaucrats and corporate power-holders of the global market economy into which the women are inserted, without their knowledge, consent, or control.

Bhardwaj, S.P. and Sindhwal, N.S. 1998. Zero tillage and weed mulch for erosion control of sloping farm land in Doon valley. Indian J.Soil Cons., 26(2): 81-85. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Dehradun 248195, India. [DOON VALLEY; EROSION; MULCH; RUNOFF; SOIL AND NUTRIENT LOSS; ZERO TILLAGE]

Erosion is a serious problem in open tilled maize grown on slopes under high rainfall area of Doon Valley. To minimize erosion hazards, reduce cost of cultivation and increase the crop productivity an experiment was conducted on field size runoff plots at 4 per cent slope. Ground flora (grass and weeds) are effective in controlling soil erosion. Utilization of this advantage was attempted in the form of space management, allowing a strip of ground flora to grow, which was later cut and spread as mulch. This mulch (4.5-5.0 t ha-1) added 75 kg N, 17 kg P and 144 kg K to the soil. Mulch resulted significant increase in infiltration and soil moisture. The moisture thus conserved was quite effective in ensuring good germination and higher yield of wheat in rainfed areas. Zero tillage + weed mulch, normal tillage + weed mulch, zero tillage, contour cultivation and cultivated fallow treatment gave runoff : 22,31,42,51 and 52 per cent of rainfall, and 3,7,12,18 and 50 t ha-1 soil loss, respectively. Mulch also reduced and delayed the peaks of runoff. Slightly lower yield of maize in mulch plots was compensated by saving in weeding, improvement in soil moisture, fertility and increase in wheat yield.

Bisht, N.S.; Singh, Y.P. and Harsh, N.S.K. 1999. Fungal diversity in Himalayas : A case study for conservation. Indian Forester, 125(2): 149-158. Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, India. [BIODIVERSITY; CONSERVATION; FOREST COVER; PRTOTECTED AREA]

To study the mycological wealth of Kumaun Himalayas, extensive surveys were conducted. The common edible, poisonous, ectomycorrhizal, fungicolous, rare, wood-decaying fungi and their commercial uses are discussed. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of fungi for fungal diversity has also been suggested.

Devi, Ch Gangarani; Damayanti, M. and Sharma, G.J. 1998. Aseptic embryo culture of Vanda coerulea griff. J. Orchid Soc. India, 12(1-2): 83-87. Department of Life Sciences, Manipur University, Imphal 795003, India. [EMBRYO CULTURE; GERMINATION; SEEDLING]

Immature embryos of Vanda coerulea were inoculated in both liquid and semi solid VW media (Vacin and Went, 1949), supplemented with vitamins and growth regulators like 1-Naphthalene aceticacid (NAA), 6-Benzyl amino purine (BAP), 6-Furfuryl amino purine, and Kinetin (KN). The semi-solid VW medium was enriched with 20% coconut water (CW). Germination of embryos occurred in both liquid and semi-solid media. However, higher percentage of, and faster rate of, germination were observed in VW liquid medium as compared to that in VW semi-solid medium. The differentiation of the protocorms into seedlings varied with the concentration and combination of growth regulators in VW semi-solid medium, enriched with 15% coconut water.

Devi, Y.Sunitibala and Laishram, J.M. 1998. In vitro propagation of Dendrobium hybrids through shoot-tip and axillary bud culture. J. Orchid Soc. India, 12(1-2): 79-81. Biotechnology Laboratory, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal 795004, India. [CLONAL PROPAGATION; DENDROBIUM HYBRIDS; SHOOT-TIP]

Shoot-tips and axillary buds from young shoots of six Dendrobium hybrids viz. Dendrobium Kasem Gold x D. Thed Takiguchi, D. Sonia No. 28, D. New Sahin Red, D. Ekapol Panda No.1, D. Sakura Pink and D. Banyad Pink were cultured in VW (Vacin and Went, 1949) and MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) media supplemented with Naphthalene acetic acid (0.1 mgl-1) and 6 Benzylaminopurine (1.0-2.0mgl-1). Multiple shoots were induced in VW medium modified with addition of thiamine - HCl (1.0 mgl-1), pyridoxine -HCl (1.0 mgl-1), nicotinic acid (1.0 mgl-1), adenine sulphate (100 mgl-1), myo-inositol (100 mgl-1), NAA (0.1 mgl-1), and BAP (3.0-4.0 mgl-1). Shoots were multiplied by cutting the mass of multiple shoots and subculturing in the same medium, thereby increasing the number of shoots.

Dhiman, A.K. 1998. Ethnomedicinal uses of some pteridophytic species in India. Indian Fern Journal, 15: 61-64. Botany Department, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar - 249404, U.P., India. [ETHNOMEDICINAL USE; PTERIDOPHYTES]

The present paper deals with ethnomedicinal uses of 15 species of pteridophytic group of plants which is considered least known and economically less important group of plants in the plant kingdom. Various folklore receipes being used throughout India by the different group of people have been given.

Dhyani, S.K. and Tripathi, R.S. 1999. Tree growth and crop yield under agrisilvicultural practices in north-east India. Agroforestry Systems, 44: 1-12. ICAR Research Complex for North Eastern Hills Region, Umiam (Barapani), Meghalaya, India; Present Address: Central Soil & Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, 218-Kaulagarh Road, Dehradun 248195, U.P., India. [ALNUS; CHERRY; INTERCROPS; MANDARIN; SLOPING LANDS]

Tree growth, survival and crop yield under agrisilvicultural practices were analyzed over a seven-year period in a split plot experiment on acid alfisol under rainfed conditions at ICAR Research Farm, Barapani (Meghalaya), India. Three indigenous species including a fruit plant, and one introduced tree species formed the main plot treatments and three crop sequences were the sub-plot. The tree species were mandarin (Citrus reticulata), alder (Alnus nepalensis), cherry (Prunus cerasoides) and albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria), and the crop sequences were (a) soybean (Glycine max)-linseed (Linum usitatissimum) for three years, then groundnut (Arachis hypogea)-mustard (Brassica campestris) for three years followed by soybean-linseed in the seventh year, (b) groundnut-mustard for three years, then soybean-linseed for three years and groundnut-mustard in the seventh year, and (c) sole trees (`tree only'). A positive effect of intercropping on height and diameter growth, crown width and timber volume was observed in alder, albizia and cherry but no appreciable differences for these parameters were observed in mandarin between the two situations. Alder and albizia attained maximum growth and woody biomass followed by cherry and the minimum growth was recorded by mandarin. The better growth and timber volume in the `tree+crop' situation was mainly due to the application of fertilizers and weeding. Crop yield reduction was observed with alder, mandarin and cherry and as the distance from tree increased, yield also improved. However, in albizia the proximity of tree did not reduce crop yield. The implications of the results are discussed in the context of the suitability of the species in this region and their usefulness in agroforestry systems.

Farooquee, N.A. 1999. Cultural diversity : The key to Himalayan sustainability (A study of Indian Central Himalaya). Man In India, 79(1&2): 53-67. G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora 263643, India. [CROP DIVERSITY; DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE; ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY]

The Indian Central Himalaya has been receiving large amounts of development assistance, largely as a response to create infrastructural facilities for enhancing its production and better living. This paper suggests to understand how the present developmental initiatives have marginalised the Himalayan diversities, and has encouraged a narrowing of the economic, cultural and ecological characteristics of the region. Thus, has brought the society at the cross roads of unsustainability.

Garbyal, S.S. 1999. `Jhuming' (Shifting cultivation) in Mizoram (India) and new land use policy - How far it has succeeded in containing this primitive agriculture practice. Indian Forester, 125(2): 137-148. Director, Forest Education, New Forest, Dehradun, India. [LAND USE POLICY; MIZORAM; RURAL DEVELOPMENT; TRADE]

Shifting cultivation that is known as `jhuming' in Mizoram, is an integral part of the socio-cultural life of Mizos. With increase in population the jhuming cycle has shortened considerably and the productivity of land has fallen with devastating impact on the environment. The Govt. of Mizoram in 1984 launched a programme called New Land Use Policy (NLUP) with an objective to put an end to the practice of jhuming by providing alternative land based permanent occupation and stable income to the families practicing jhuming (jhumias) in rural areas thereby raising their standard of living. Assistance is provided for various trades or occupation for a period of three years. The programme is operated on yearly basis. In addition to the main trade, assistance is also provided for subsidiary trades so that the beneficiary earns income throughout the year. It is, however, found that the NLUP have not had any impact on jhuming as most of the beneficiaries are continuing jhuming even after receiving assistance under NLUP. Programme has also failed to bring out any perceptible improvement in the economic condition of the villagers. There has not been any significant change in the quality of life of the beneficiaries. There is a need to bring out changes in the attitudes towards jhuming. The programme needs restructuring. The beneficiaries, village councils and YMA need to be involved at all levels, proper marketing facilities for the products are required to be provided, utmost care is required while selecting the beneficiaries, the resources of various participating departments are required to be pooled in and effective monitoring and evaluation and evaluation system needs to be put in place.

Garforth, C.J.; Malla, Y.B.; Neopane, R.P. and Pandit, B.H. 1999. Socioeconomic factors and agro-forestry improvements in the hills of Nepal. Mountain Research and Development, 19(3): 273-278. Agriculture Extension and Rural Development Department, The University of Reading, Reading, UK; Nepal Agroforestry Foundation, Kathmandu, Nepal. [AGROFORESTRY; GENDER DIVISION; LIVELIHOOD; LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT]

Trees, crops, and livestock are integral parts of the complex farming systems on Nepalese hillsides. Any strategy for soil fertility improvement will take account of the interactions between these components, both on private farmland and common property and in public access forest and grazing areas. This requires a less restricted definition of the slope of agro-forestry than has often been applied previously. Agro-forestry can contribute to soil fertility improvement through increasing the quality and quantity of fodder and hence livestock manure, providing biomass for composting and slowing the loss of nutrients through runoff. Socioeconomic contextual factors that influence the introduction of agro-forestry innovations include the distribution and fragmentation of landholding, the relative importance of agriculture in household livelihoods, and the gender division of labor and management responsibilities within households. Studies of socioeconomic patterns within and between rural communities, can enable researchers to better focus their efforts. Examples from Nepal are presented and their implications for research design, method, and process, and for dissemination are explored.

Heinen, Joel T. and Mehta, Jai N. 1999. Conceptual and legal issues in the designation and management of conservation areas in Nepal. Environmental Conservation, 26(1): 21-29. Department of Environmental Studies, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199, USA; Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 205 Prospect Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. [COMMUNITY-BASED CONSERVATION; CONSERVATION AREAS; NEPAL; PROTECTED AREA]

The modern era of wildlife and protected area conservation in Nepal began in 1973 with the passage of comprehensive legislation, and has evolved very quickly as new priorities and problems have emerged. Here we explore the legal and managerial development of conservation areas, a recently-defined category of protected area designed to promote conservation through local-level participation and development. A review of the Conservation Area Management Regulations of 1996 shows that there are several potential problems inherent in this designation. As written, the regulations move power from the government to organizations under governmental contract. Thus, management authority largely remains top-down from the standpoint of local users. Ws also question how well the designation will protect some sensitive wildlife species, since organizations do not have law enforcement authority under Nepalese legislation. Despite these concerns, there have been several successful conservation area programmes in existence in Nepal since the 1980s and most of the issues addressed are surmountable with the current regulations, providing that several criteria are met. We propose the His Majesty's Government and organizations under contract develop more definitive methods of disbursing funds for local-level projects, and institute social impact assessments. In addition, more attention must be paid to wildlife law enforcement; independent assessment of important wild population and unique habitats are needed. Finally, we discuss some broader issues that should be better addressed in Nepal and elsewhere, including cross-sectoral coordination within the government.

Jha, M.N.; Gupta, M.K. and Dimri, B.M. 1999. Soil organic matter status under different social forestry plantations. Indian Forester, 125(9): 883-890. Forest Soil and Land Reclamation Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, U.P. [MONSOONS; PINUS ROXBURGHII; SOCIAL FORESTRY]

A study was conducted in Langha Forest Range of Mussoorie Division under 15 years old plantations of Pinus roxburghii, Tectona grandis, Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus, Acacia catechu along with natural Shorea robusta forest and barren land to find out the status of soil organic matter. This study was conducted before and after monsoon to investigate the changes in SOM due to change of seasons. Before monsoon it was observed that SOM content was higher under natural Shorea robusta followed by Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus, Tectona grandis, Acacia catechu and Pinus roxburghii plantations and least under barren land and after monsoon it was higher under Eucalyptus only in top (0-10 cm) layer but over all higher under the soils of natural Shorea robusta followed by Eucalyptus, Dalbergia sissoo, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Tectona grandis and least under barren land. In general SOM was observed higher in post-monsoon in comparison to pre-monsoon period.

Jha, M.N.; Gupta, M.K.; Dimri, B.M. and Bedwal, H.S. 1999. Soil moisture accretion with progressive rainfall under Tectona grandis (teak) and Eucalyptus plantations. Indian Forester, 125(4): 392-400. Forest Soils and Land Reclamation Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, India. [CUMULATIVE RAINFALL; EUCALYPTUS; REGRESSION EQUATION; TECTONA GRANDIS]

Gradual accretion of soil moisture in different depths with the progression of rainfall under Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus plantation at Langha range of Mussoorie Forest Division was studied. When cumulative rainfall rises upto 148.4mm, water percolates only upto 75 cm depth under both plantation. At CRF 815.2mm entire profile gets charged and no further increase in soil moisture was observed at 1421.1 m CRF, especially under Tectona grandis. The moisture accretion, in general, was higher in the soils supporting Eucalyptus in comparison to those under teak plantation and, in particular in the lower depths at the above CRF of 815.2 mm. It was observed that during dry months soil moisture has positive relationship with depth.

Jones, Jim Ellis 1999. Poverty, land care, and sustainable livelihoods in hillside and mountain regions. Mountain Research and Development, 19(3): 179-190. Silsoe Research Institute, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedfordshire MK45 4HS, UK. [AGRO-ECOLOGICAL; DIVERSITY; LAND CARE; LIVELIHOOD; POVERTY]

Resource-use decisions made by households and local communities in pursuit of today's survival and livelihood security are influenced by the policies, institutions, and technologies that impact on their lives. Such decisions are the main determinants of links between poverty elimination, improved land care, and sustainable rural livelihoods. In the long term such goals can be compatible but in the short term the need for increased yield with increasing populations is likely to undermine sustainable natural resource management. Increasing analysis and understanding of poverty, its measurement, and identification of the processes that create poverty, as well as improved land care are key to creating sustainable livelihoods. Hillside and mountainous areas are particularly vulnerable to poverty due to their inaccessibility, fragility, marginality, and diversity. Although many of the world hot spots for land degradation are found in hillside areas, there are also many bright spots where improvements in natural resource management are resulting in increased incomes. Poverty culmination will require revival of the community stake in the natural resource base, restoring local control over local resources, and use of local perspectives and traditional knowledge systems in development activities. New policies, institutions, and technologies will need to reflect these principles.

Khan, S.N.; Uniyal, Kamla; Dhiman, R.C. and Bhardwaj, Nidhi 1999. Observations on the development of mycorrhiza in chir pine seedlings of different provenances. Indian Journal of Forestry, 22(2): 95-100. Forest Pathology Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, U.P., India. [ECTOMYCORRHIZAL; MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI; PINUS ROXBURGHII]

A quantitative and qualitative assessment of mycorrhiza development was made in uninoculated seedling stock of Pinus roxburghii raised from seeds of twenty provenances. Significant differences were observed in mycorrhiza formation by indigenous mycorrhizal fungi representing seven distinct groups of provenances. Kuthnoor, Dharashu, Deha and Dibkhan provenances form a separate group which shows significantly higher values for short root formation, mycorrhizal roots and per cent mycorrhizal roots per plant in relation to group of Dharmshala, Bhader Kali, Mashobra, Neri Nissoo and Chabal Ki Dhar provenances which show significantly lower values for all the three parameters. Six forms of mycorrhizae were observed out of which one, light to dark brown, smooth form was predominant in association with thirteen provenances followed by smooth, brown, loose hyphal and yellow to sepia in groups of seven, six and five provenances, whereas others were restricted to one and two provenances.

Khattri, K.N. 1999. Probabilities of occurrence of great earthquakes in Himalaya. Current Science, 77(7): 967-972. 100 Rajendra Nagar, Dehradun 248001, India. [EARTHQUAKES; MAIN CENTRAL THRUST; SEISMIC ZONE; TIME WINDOW]

The long-term conditional probabilities of occurrence of great earthquakes along the Himalaya plate boundary seismic zone have been estimated. The chance of occurrence of at least one great earthquake along this seismic zone in a period of 100 years (beginning with the year 1999) is estimated to be about 0.89. The 100-year probability of such an earthquake occurring in the Kashmir seismic gap is about 0.27, in the central seismic gap is about 0.52 and in the Assam gap is about 0.21. The 25-year probabilities of their occurrence are 0.07, 0.17, and 0.05 for the Kashmir, the central and the Assam seismic gaps, respectively. These probabilities will serve in the assessment of the seismic hazard in the Himalaya and the adjoining Ganga plains.

Kirn, H.S.; Kapahi, B.K. and Srivastava, T.N. 1999. Non-Timeber forest wealth of Jammu & Kashmir state (India) I. The medicinal plants. Journal of Non-Timber Forests Products, 6(1/2): 1-18. Department of Botany, G.G.M. Science College, Jammu Tawi 180001, India; Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu Tawi 180001, India. [ETHNO-MEDICO-BOTANY; MEDICINAL PLANTS; NON-TIMBER FOREST]

Plant have been used since long for the basic needs of human being, food, shelter, fibre and medicine, etc. Much have been published on ethno-medico-botany of Jammu and Kashmir during the last two decades but no effort has been made to bring the otherwise scattered information together. In this paper an attempt is, therefore, made and information on ethno-medico-botany of 207 taxa is presented.

Kirn, H.S.; Kapahi, B.K. and Srivastava, T.N. 1999. Ethnobotanical observation on the gymnosperms of Jammu and Kashmir state, India. Journal of Non-Timber Forests Products, 6(1/2): 57-62. Department of Botany, Govt. Gandhi Memorial Science College, Jammu Tawi 180001, India; Regional Research Laboratory, Canal Road, Jammu Tawi 180001, India. [ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY; GYMNOSPERMS; LOCATIONAL DISTRIBUTION]

Botanists have made significant contribution to the ethnobotany of Jammu and Kashmir, but Gymnosperms in quantity have surprisingly received a cold response in the past. Folklore claims of 11 taxa growing wild in Jammu and Kashmir state are presented in this paper.

Kishtwaria, J. 1999. Time expenditure pattern of Gaddi tribal women of Himachal Pradesh. Journal of Human Ecology, 10(4): 255-257. College of Home Science, HPKV, Palampur 176062, H.P., India. [GADDI; TIME EXPENDITURE PATTERN; TRIBAL WOMEN; UNEMPLOYED AND EMPLOYED]

Tribal women spent a large proportion of their time in carrying out household work, animal care, agricultural and allied tasks. However, gainfully employed respondents spent significantly less time while performing all these tasks than non-employed respondents. Thus, there is a scope to improve time use pattern of non-employed respondents for effective implementation on development policies and programmes in the free time available to them.

Kotal, Murali 1999. Incidence of PTC tasters and defective colour vision among the koch of West Garo Hills, Meghalaya, North East India. Journal of Human Ecology, 10(4): 315-316. Anthropological Survey of India, North East Regional Centre, Upper Lachumiere, Shillong 793001, Meghalaya, India. [GENETIC MARKERS; KOCH; MEGHALAYA; VARIATION]

A study of PTC taste perception and defective colour vision was carried among the Koch in West Garo Hills district of Meghalaya, North East India. It was found that the frequency of taster gene (T) among the Koch is 0.4437 and percentage frequency of red-green colour blindness was 3.6.

Kumar, Bhishm; Nachiappan, Rm P.; Rai, S.P.; Saravanakumar, U. and Navada, S.V. 1999. Improved prediction of life expectancy for a Himalayan lake: Nainital, UP., India. Mountain Research and Development, 19(2): 113-121. National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee 247667, U.P.; Western Himalayan Regional Centre, NIH, Jammu 180003, J&K; Isotope Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra, India. [ACCUMULATION ZONE; HUMAN SETTLEMENT; RADIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES; SEDIMENTATION]

An attempt has been made to predict the life of Lake Nainital, a natural lake located in the Kumaun Himalaya with a fairly large human settlement around it. Sediment accumulation rates estimated by dating the lake sediment cores employing 210Pb and 137Cs dating techniques have been used for the purpose. The sediment accumulation rates estimated by radioisotope techniques are comparable to the rates obtained by the sediment balance method using suspended sediment data. The estimated useful life of the lake is about 2,200 years, which is much higher than the results obtained by earlier investigators who used short term bathymetric data. In the present study, long-term (46 years) annual lake sounding data have also been analysed. Large bi-directional variations in the annual bathymetry imply that major errors are associated with the lake sounding data that led to the under-estimation of the life span of Lake Nainital by earlier investigators.

Kumar, Kireet and Satyal, G.S. 1999. Cost analysis of losses caused by the Malpa landslide in Kumaun Himalaya - a basic framework for risk assessment. Current Science, 77(8): 1023-1028. G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora 263 643, India. [COST ESTIMATE; LAND-USE PATTERN; LANDSLIDE]

Large scale landsliding of inhabited tracts in the Kumaun Himalaya have wrecked havoc to the natural environment and economy of the region. The village agricultural and pasture lands, communication routes, human and animal population and other structures are all severely affected by landslides, underlining their significance for the economy of the region. In 1998, one such landslide in the Malpa village of Kumaun region turned out to be one of the major disasters of recent times, taking a heavy toll of human life (207). Other losses includes animals (69), agricultural land (0.408 ha), huts (5), houses (5), and wooden bridge. According to the tehsil records, the total loss in monetary terms has been assessed at Rs. 38,51,400/-, but this assessment is highly underestimated as it ignores private losses. An attempt is, therefore, made in this paper to make a detailed analysis of all damages, both public and private to estimate the total cost of landslide damages. This estimated to be Rs. 56,94,203/- which is about 1.5 times the official estimate. The total cost of human life in terms of compensation decided by the government, comes out to be over Rs. 2 crores. The present study also highlights different aspects of landslide costs which must be included calculating the cost of damage.

Kumar, Kireet; Satyal, G.S. and Panda, Y.S. 1999. Chemistry of drinking water sources in Almora district of Kumaun Himalaya, India. Proceedings of National Conference on Water Quality Management: 10-19. G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora 263643, India. [ELECTRICAL CODUCTIVITY; LAND-USE PATTERN; pH MEASURE; SURFACE WATER]

Sound water resource management is the key to some of water related problems in hills which requires both quantitative and qualitative assessment of water sources. The present study is focused on qualitative aspect of domestic water supply sources in Almora district of Kumaun Himalaya. Surface water is main source for domestic water supply schemes in the region which is generally influenced by the changes in land use pattern. The chemistry of surface water in north and south zones of the district having different land use patterns is discussed and then results are compared with water quality standards. Surface water in south Almora is better in quality than north in terms of dissolved ions. Some influence of agricultural activities is noticed in the form of high nitrate levels in north zone. Most of the water samples contain flourides possibly from the bed rocks. However, in both the cases water has been found suitable for domestic water supply.

Kumar, Surendar 1999. Chhota Shigri Glacier: its kinematic effects over the valley environment, in the northwest Himalaya. Current Science, 77(4): 594-598. Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun 248001, India. [ACCUMULATION ZONE; CONTOUR LINE; NET BALANCE; SURFACE VELOCITY]

The relation of surface lowering, net balance and flow dynamics reflects that vertical component of ice flow is downward in and around the equilibrium line while it is upward in the lower part (ablation zone) of Chhota Shigri Glacier. The submergence velocity in accumulation area is higher than the rise of surface and emergence velocity is lower than that of negative net balance. The basal sliding velocity is responsible for the movement of the glacier. The over-extension of the glacier at average snout position is one of the factors in controlling the temperature variation of the main Chandra river valley.

Lodhiyal, L.S.; Singh, S.P. and Lodhiyal, Neelu 1998. Phenology, population structure and dynamics of Ringal Bamboo (Arundinaria falcata) in Nainital hill of Central Himalaya. Tropical Ecology, 39(1): 109-115. Forest and Environment Unit, Centre for Development Studies, U.P. Academy of Administration, Nainital; Department of Botany, Kumaun University, Nainital, India. [ARUNDINARIA FALCATA; NATALITY AND MORTALITY; PHENOLOGY; POPULATION DYNAMICS; POPULATION STRUCTURE]

Investigation on phenology, population structure and dynamics of Arundinaria falcata Nees (Ringal) from April 1984 to April 1985 in Kumaun Himalaya was carried out. The highest values for leaf area increment leaf dry weight increment, leaf growth rate, shoot height growth and specific leaf area were recorded, respectively in April, November, April, July and March. Population structure indicated inverted pyramidal shape across all the sampling dates. Of the total natality 92% occurred between April to August. However, the maximum mortality was recorded between August to December.

Mamgain, S.K. 1999. Diversity, ecology and distribution of Indian Lactuceae (Asteraceae). Indian Forester, 125(4): 411-420. National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (U.P.). [COLD DESERT; DIVERSITY; LACTUCEAE; WASTELANDS]

The present communication deals with diversity, ecology and distribution of Indian Lactuceae (Asteraceae) which is represented by 10 genera namely Lactuca L., Prenanthes L., Launaea Cass., Sonchus L., Reichardia Roth, Cicerbita Wallr., Ixeris, Cass., Chondrilla L., Dubyaea DC and Youngia Cass., with 80 taxa in India. Among these 9 genera and 51 taxa are from the Western Himalaya, 7 genera and 31 taxa from Eastern Himalaya, 5 genera and 12 taxa from Western and Eastern Ghats and 6 genera and 15 taxa from Gangetic plains, Rajasthan and other parts of the country. The Lactuceae exhibit wide range of variations in its ecological habitats from sea coast to 5000 m in elevations and exhibit enormous diversity both intraspecifically and interspecifically. The Himalayas are shown to be major centre for Lactuceae diversity and distribution followed by Western Ghats and Gangetic plains. At generic level Lactuca exhibits maximum diversity with 25 species followed by Youngia and Cicerbita, all three are predominantly Himalayan. The genus Dubyaea is endemic to Sino-Himalayan region with 9 species, while 6 of its 9 species are highly localized in this region. The maximum diversity of Lactuceae in the Himalaya is due to a variety of climatic conditions and altitudes which in turn has resulted in diverse habitats. The Lactuceae inhabit every conceivable habitats and reveals a great amount of variation in the populations of different species. The distribution analysis of Lactuceae reveals that its members are chiefly distributed in the Himalaya and poorly represented in Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats and Gangetic plains.

Mawdsley, Emma 1999. A new Himalayan state in India: popular perceptions of regionalism, politics, and development. Mountain Research and Development, 19(2): 101-112. Department of Geography, University of Durham, Science Site, South Rd., Durham, DH1 3LE, UK. [BACKWARD CASTES; ECONOMIC GROWTH; HIMALAYAN STATE; POLITICAL REPRESENTATION; REGIONALISM]

In April 1998 the newly elected Government of India announced that it would oversee the creation of four new states within the Federal Union of India. One of these regions currently forms the Himalayan part of Uttar Pradesh, and will be known as Uttaranchal. The reason given for this decision is that the formation of a smaller, separate state will encourage greater administrative efficiency and political accountability in this `backward' mountain region. This proposal was first officially accepted by the Government of Uttar Pradesh in 1991, and ever since then development planners, academics, economics, and civil servants have discussed the economic and political viability of the proposal. However, much less is heard about what ordinary villagers and townpeople of this hill region think about these issues, despite the fact that their recent mass protest played a vital part in persuading the Central Government to accept the proposal for a separate hill state. This paper explores some of the perceptions of ordinary hill men and women on the subjects of regionalism, politics, and development.

Mehrotra, Arushi 1999. Cotyledon and collar rot of Bauhinia purpurea and its management. Indian Journal of Forestry, 22(2): 177-178. 4, New Forest, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, U.P. [COLLAR ROT; COTYLEDON; FYM; SEEDLING]

Collar rot of Bauhinia purpurea caused by Rhizoctonia solani was recorded for the first time in India. The fungus also attacked cotyedons and caused rotting to varying extent. The disease was effectively controlled by seed treatment with Thiride @ 6g/kg and soil drenching with Dithane M-45 (0.3%) @ 20 ml per tube in root trainers prior to sowing of seeds.

Mitter, Harsh and Sharma, Anil 1999. Propagation of Taxus Baccata Linn. by stem cuttings. Indian Forester, 125(2): 159-162. General Manager, Rosin & Turpentine Factory, Bilaspur (formerly DFO Palampur); Assistant Director, IGCP, Palampur (formerly ACF, Palampur). [ROOTING RESPONSE; STEM CUTTING; TAXUS BACCATA]

Taxus baccata Linn. growing in Dhauladhar range is over exploited due to excessive collection of leaves for yield of anti-carcinogenic drugs like Taxol and Baccatin etc. The restoration and restocking of this II canopy tree under Q. semecarpifolia forests can be done through raising woody stem cuttings with growth regulators in February/July as the growth of seed raised plants is extremely slow. The experiments were carried out in the natural zone at forest nursery, Bir.

Mohsin, Faiz; Singh, R.P. and Singh, K. 1999. Biomass distribution in Poplus deltoide under agroforestry system. Indian Forester, 125(8): 794-798. Asstt. Professor, Directorate of Extension, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (U.P.); Head, Deptt. of Forestry, Kumaun University, Nainital (U.P.); Scientist Incharge, CIMAP, Boduppal, Uppal, Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh). [AGROFORESTRY; BIOMASS; POPLAR]

Populus deltoides trees grown in stands treated with various Mentha and Cymbopogon spp. attained better growth than their pure stands at juvenile (2 and 3 years) and advanced (6 and 7 years) ages. Bolewood provided maximum contributed among all the components in pure as well as intercropped stands at all the age group of trees. It was further revealed that the total biomass was highest in the plantation of P. deltoides of all the ages intercropped with Mentha spp. It decreased in Cymbopogon spp. but still remained higher than that of pure stands which showed lowest biomass production.

Mondal, B. and Chaudhuri, Sarit 1999. A note on palmar flexion creases among the Mann tribe of Meghalaya, North-East India. Journal of Human Ecology, 10(4): 311-312. Department of Anthropology, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793014, Meghalaya, India; Department of Tribal Studies, Arunachal University, Itanagar 791111, Arunachal Pradesh, India. [MANN TRIBE; MEGHALAYA; PALMAR FLEXION CREASES; POPULATION VARIATION]

Palmar flexion creases in the Mann tribe of West Garo Hills district of Meghalaya, North East India were studied in a sample of bilateral palm prints of 123 male and 116 female subjects. It was found that there exists no bimanual or bisexual variation with regard to this trait in the present population. The Mann tribe was found to differ significantly from most of the other populations of North East India in respect of palmar flexion creases.

Nath, S.C. and Begum, D. 1998. Bibliographic Information on Ethnobotany of North-Eastern India. Ethnobotany, 10(): 122-126. Division of Plant Sciences and Ecology, Regional Research Laboratory, Jorhat 785006, Assam, India; Division of Library and Documentation, Regional Research Laboratory, Jorhat 785 006, Assam, India. [BIBLIOGRAPHY; ETHNOBOTANY; NORTH-EAST INDIA]

The paper deals with the bibliographic information on research and related activities carried out in North-Eastern part of India in the field of ethnobotany and allied aspects. The bibliography has covered 100 references compiled from different books and journals upto 1996.

Nautiyal, B.P. and Bhatt, A.B. 1999. Niche width and diversity pattern in different landscapes of an alpine Grazingland in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Indian Forester, 125(4): 375-380. Ecology Laboratory, Department of Botany, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar. [ALPINE GRASSLAND; CONTINUUM INDEX; GARHWAL HIMALAYA; VEGETATION TYPE]

Niche width, b-diversity, equatibility and PxF index for important herbs and graminoids of an alpine grazingland in Panwali Kantha (Garhwal, Western Himalaya) at different aspects and altitudes have been discussed. Phleum alpinum among the graminoides exhibited maximum niche width the Bupleurum lanceolatum and Taraxacum officinale showed maximum niche location. Higher b-diversity and equatibility values at stand CDC II indicated rapid change in species composition and community heterogeneity according to species adaptability and growth requirements. The continuum index values showed better impact of environmental gradients on the vegetation.

Negi, K.S. and Singh, B.M. 1999. Exploration and collection of wild economically useful plants, medicinal, aromatic plants and paddy germplasm from Central Himalaya. Journal of Non-Timber Forests Products, 6(1/2): 31-38. National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Regional Station, Bhowali 263132, Niglat, Distt.- Nainital, India. [AROMATIC PLANT; CENTRAL HIMALAYA; GERMPLASM; MEDICINAL PLANTS]

Plant genetic resources were studied in Central Himalaya, which constitutes Garhwal and Kumaun regions of Uttar Pradesh by National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), Head Quarter, New Delhi and its regional station-Bhowali in October, 1996. In total, 107 accessions, mainly medicinal and aromatic plants (M. & AP.) from valley areas (lower altitude up to 1500 m a.s.l.), M. & AP. from Higher altitudes (alpine and meadows) up to 4000 m a.s.l., lesser known plants, wild relatives, wild economically useful plants and paddy germplasm were collected. It belongs to 67 species, 54 genera, many of the 63 accessions being dominant of the M. & AP. In case of paddy, some of the unexplored and promising areas of Central Himalayan villages, i.e., Tapovan, near Rishikesh (Distt.-Tehri) and Chakrata (Distt.- Dehradun), landraces and local/primitive cultivars are still common. The efforts are continued to maintain the collected plant material by ex-situ and in-situ conservation in NBPGR.

Pandey, Prabha and Rawat, R.S. 1999. Some new observations on the Amritpur Granite Series, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, India. Current Science, 77(2): 296-299. National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad 500007, India; Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun 248001, India. [LITHO-TECTONIC SETUP; METAMORPHISM; MICROCLINE]

The precambrian Amritpur Granite Series (AGS) in the Kumaun Lesser Himalaya is a composite body of three distinct types, viz, Porphyritic Amritpur Granite (PAG), Equigranular Amritpur Granite (EAG) Amritpur Porphyry (AP) and extends for a length of 60 km. Signature of Precambrian, pre-Himalayan contact metamorphism in addition to the Himalayan regional metamorphism (greenschist to lower amphibolite facies) and subsequent retrograde metamorphism are observed in the AGS. The authors have provided definite evidence for a contact aureole zone around AGS in the east of Hairakhan, NE of Durgapipal and Chandadevi and reported the xenoliths of PAG and EAG types in AP at Jamrani indicating a younger age of AP.

Pandit, Atul; Tewari, Ashish and Ram, Jeet 1999. Tree layer analysis and regeneration in a mixed conifer-oak forest in central Himalaya. Indian Journal of Forestry, 21(4): 290-297. Department of Forestry, Kumaun University, Nainital 263002, India. [CROWN COVER; DIVERSITY INDEX; OAK FOREST; RELATIVE DENSITY]

The tree layer analysis was carried out in a high altitude Chir-pine mixed Oak forest situated between 1800-2100 m elevation. The low density of seedling and saplings in almost all the species in this forest indicates poor regeneration pattern. Quercus leucotrichophora due to serve lopping pressure fails to produce seeds. The most characteristic feature of the forest is the dominance of pine (Pinus roxburghii) and Rhododendron arboreum over Banj-oak (Q. leucotrichophora in the Oak zone. Repeated fires and other biotic factors are making the area poor, both in nutrients and top soil which will eventually result in the desertification of the Himalaya in the long run.

Pant, Kavita; Pandit, Atul; Tewari, Ashish and Koshyari, R.S. 1999. Agroforestry patterns in the Tarai region of Central Himalaya. Indian Journal of Forestry, 22(2): 123-128. Department of Forestry, Kumaun University, Nainital, U.P., India. [AGROFORESTRY; LAND-USE PATTERN; LIVESTOCK; SOCIO-ECONOMIC BENEFITS]

The present study deals with the status and patterns of agroforestry practices in Tarai region of Kumaun. The study was made in three villages (Narayanpur, Ganeshpur and Gangapur) of Udham Singh Nagar District lying between 28.9oN latitude and 79.4oE longitude. Among the trees planted Poplar is most preferred species. Study of agroforestry patterns reveals that bund planting is predominant in the areas following with wayside and field plantations. In these villages 100% farmers have adopted agroforestry practices thereby reducing pressure on the surrounding natural forests.

Pathania, N.S.; Sehgal, O.P.; Paul, Debojit and Dilta, B.S. 1998. Studies on micropropagation in Dendrobium CV. Sonia. J. Orchid Soc. India, 12(1-2): 35-38. Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni 173230, India. [CLONE; DENDROBIUM HYBRIDS; MICROPROPAGATION; SHOOT-TIP]

In vitro studies were conducted to assess the regeneration response of stem explants (each bearing a bud) procured from shoots emerging from Dendrobium cv. Sonia pseudobulbs using four different culture media. Both Vacin and Went (VW, 1949) and Knudson C (KC, 1946) media favoured formation of protocorm like bodies (PLBs) and subsequent development of plantlets. KC medium supplemented with BAP (1.5 mgl-1), NAA (0.4mgl-1) and paelobutrazol (Imgl-1) was found to be best for further multiplication of PLBs. All the media favoured rooting when supplemented with IBA (Imgl-1) or NAA (1.8 mgl-1) and paelobutrazol (0.5 mgl-1). Hardening medium containing bark pieces, brick pieces, moss, and charcoal pieces (1:1:1:1) proved suitable for the establishment of in vitro rooted plantlets.

Prakash, Anil; Bhattacharyya, D.R.; Mohapatra, P.K. and Mahanta, J. 1998. Anopheline fauna of the north-eastern states of India with notes on vectors of malaria. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. India, 68(B)(III & IV): 217-229. Regional Medical Research Centre, NE Region (ICMR), P.B.#105, Dibrugarh 786001, India. [ANOPHELES; CHECKLIST; MALARIA VECTORS; MOSQUITO FAUNA]

Statewise checklist of anopheline mosquitoes recorded, so far, from the north-eastern region of India is prepared. It includes 42 mosquito species of genus Anopheles, the maximum (40) from Assam and the minimum (18) from Nagaland. Notes on various species groups of genus Anopheles and malaria vectors in the north-eastern states have been provided.

Pratap, Tej 1999. Sustainable land management in marginal mountain areas of the Himalayan region. Mountain Research and Development, 19(3): 251-260. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) P.O. Box 3226, Kathmandu, Nepal. [CROPLAND; HINDUKUSH HIMALAYA; LANDHOLDING; LIVELIHOOD; NUTRIENT DYNAMICS]

This paper highlights the scarcity of arable cropland in the hills and mountains of the Himalayan region. This is one of the factors leading to food insecurity and poverty. Technological interventions were applied in some areas to increase the amount of land available by making productive use of marginal areas. This has been supported by strong political commitment which facilitates a favorable policy environment for investment in technological research, enterprise, and infrastructure development. These experiences indicate a new thinking which advocates research into 'niche based' sustainable production systems on marginal lands as part of the solution to cropland scarcity. Better management of marginal land and improved livelihoods may result.

Raizada, A.; Joshi, S.P. and Srivastava, M.M. 1998. Composition and vegetational diversity in an alpine grassland in the Garhwal Himalayas. Tropical Ecology, 39(1): 133-141. Department of Botany, DAV (PG) College, Dehradun, India. [ALPINE GRASSLAND; COMMUNITIES; DIVERSITY; GRAZING; PROTECTION]

Vegetational composition and diversity were studied were studied in the alpine grassland Panwalikantha (3963m) in Garhwal Himalayas, which is intensively grazed in the summer months. Seven distinct plant communities, were identified. Importance value index (IVI), Sorenson's similarity index, Shannon's diversity index (H), Concentration of dominance (Cd) were calculated and cluster and analysis of sampling units was carried out. Species richness was highest (42) in the moderately grazed plot and least in the intensively grazed plot. Diversity (H) was also the highest in the moderately grazed plot (3.6) and least in the grazed site (1.58). Under continued grazing Danthonia cachmeriana and Saxifraga androsacea was replaced with Carex nubigena and Trachydium roylei. Results indicate that intensity of grazing directly affects species occurrence and diversity. Moderate grazing increased and continued protection decreased species diversity, while unchecked grazing led to the disappearance of several species, and their gradual replacement with unpalatable herbs.

Rawat, G.S.; Sathyakumar, S. and Prasad, S. Narendra 1999. Plant species diversity and community structure in the outer fringes of Kedarnath wildlife sanctuary, Western Himalaya: Conservation implications. Indian Forester, 125(9): 873-882. Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun, U.P., India; Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Kalampalayam, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. [CONSERVATION; FUEL-WOOD; OAK-RHODODENDRON; SHRUB DENSITY]

Studies on the plant species diversity and community structure were carried in the outer fringes (1550m - 1900m) of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Himalaya. Five sites were selected along the gradient of human use which represented various stages of Oak-Rhododendron Quercus leucotrichophora - Rhododendron arboreum community. The tree density varied significantly among the sites (ANOVA p<0.001) but there was no significant variation in the shrub density. The diversity of tree and shrub species have been compared separately at various sites using Shannon-Wiener index. The number of woody species was highest in the moderately disturbed site where as lowest in the Oak forest protected and artificially regenerated by the villagers. Moderately disturbed site showed best regeneration of ban Oak. However, maximum tree species diversity, structural (and possibly functional diversity) are exhibited by the old growth forest. Indicators of different seral stages have been identified and conservation implications discussed.

Rawat, Jaya and Pant, Chitralekha 1999. Structure of a chir pine community along two different aspects and altitudinal gradients. Indian Journal of Forestry, 22(2): 141-144. Department of Botany, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar 246174, U.P., India. [BIODIVERSITY; CHIR-PINE; DIVERSITY INDEX; ELEVATIONAL GRADIENT]

The study reveals the structure of chir pine community along two aspects and four elevational zones in Garhwal Himalaya. The findings indicated that chir pine prefers sunny slopes with xeric conditions and is dominated in the drier south facing slopes. Therefore it should be recommended for the naked and drier slopes of Garhwal Himalaya as a pioneer species for vegetation cover.

Sah, V.K.; Bana, O.P.S. and Singh, Virendra 1998. Biomass production and its allocation in components of young Robinia pseudoacacia. Tropical Ecology, 39(1): 125-131. Department of Forestry, Hill Campus, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal, India. [ALLOMETRIC EQUATIONS; BIOMASS PRODUCTION; CURRENT ANNUAL INCREMENT; MEAN ANNUAL INCREMENT; ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA]

The study deals with the biomass production and allocation in young (6 months to 4 years old) Robinia pseudoacacia L. plants. The height, basal girth and dry weight of each component of the plant increased with age. Satisfactory allometric equations relating to biomass of different components with basal girth (Bg) and squared basal diameter x height (bd2h) were developed. The intercomponent biomass relationships were also highly significant and the resulting allometric equations carried smaller error than the equation using Bg as the independent variable. The mean annual increment has increased with age and did not equal current annual increment, indicating the individuals have not attained maturity. Number of root nodules per tree were significantly related to corresponding tree biomass and age.

Saroj, P.L.; Dwivedi, V.K.; Kumar, Ashok and Dadhwal, K.S. 1999. Effect of forest species on the productivity of groundstorey crops. Indian Forester, 125(8): 788-793. Central Soil & Water Conservation Research & Training Institute, Dehradun, U.P., India. [EUCALYPTUS HYBRID; FODDER YIELD; GROUNDSTOREY CROPS; MIXED PLANTATIONS]

The investigation was carried out at CSWCRTI, Research Farm, Selakui, Dehradun to see the productivity of groundstorey crops with different tree species. The cropping sequence (jowar-torai) was tested with three plantation i.e. Eucalyptus hybrid, Bombax ceiba and mixed plantations (natural) of Cassia fistula, Bombax ceiba, Acacia catechu, Lannea coromandalica and Dalbergia sissoo. It was observed that about 14.89, 12.79 and 12.14 t/ha green fodder yield of jowar can be obtained with Bombax ceiba, Eucalyptus hybrid and mixed plantations, respectively. The trend was same with toria and seed yield recorded were 3.68, 2.78 and 2.38 q/ha under Bombax ceiba, Eucalyptus hybrid and mixed plantations, respectively. The yield of both the crops increases with increasing distance from the tree trunk, however the direction did not influence the yield of groundstorey crops.

Sharma, Binoy Raj; Mandal, Bikash; Chandra, Umesh and Saha, Bharat Chandra 1998. An outbreak of Cymbidium rot epidemicat Kurseong (Darjeeling District). J. Orchid Soc. India, 12(1-2): 5-8. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalimpong 734301, India; IARI, Regional Station, Kalimpong, West Bengal 734301, India. [BACTERIAL PATHOGEN; CYMBIDIUM; ROOT ROT; ROT EPIDEMIC]

Several orchid growers, at Kurseong, suffered huge crop loss to Cymbidium rot epidemic during 1995-1997 monsoons. The severity of the disease varied with the nursery and the total loss was estimated at Rs. 7,73,500/-. Pythium was found associated with pseudobulb rot and Fusarium with root rot. Some remedial measures have been suggested.

Sharma, Jauti 1998. Studies on Vanda: Effect of age of capsules (Pods) on In vitro seed germination. J. Orchid Soc. India, 12(1-2): 43-45. Tissue Culture Laboratory, Botany Department, St. Anthony's College, Shillong 793001, India. [CAPSULE AGE; SEED GERMINATION; VANDA COERULEA]

In an endangered species Vanda coerulea Griff. ex Lindl., seeds from capsules (pods) at various stages of development were cultured asymbiotically In vitro. The germination percentage increased with the capsule age ranging from 180 days to 270 days. The seeds obtained from 270 days old capsules revealed the maximum seed germination on Knudson C medium.

Sharma, R.A. 1999. Tree aerial volume models for Pinus roxburghii. Indian Forester, 125(3): 282-284. Director, Swedforest, New Delhi. [CROWN DIAMETER; PINE FOREST; REGRESSION EQUATION; STEM DIAMETER]

Three different approaches of developing tree aerial models have been presented based on a field study carried out in the coniferous forest Himalayas. The multiple correlation coefficient came out to be quite high in each model. The best model has been suggested based on the least residual and highest multiple correlation coefficient.

Sharma, R.C.; Sharma, Sanjeev and Khurana, D.K. 1999. Assessment of poplar germplasm for resistance against Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot of poplars in Himachal Pradesh. Indian Forester, 125(8): 784-787. Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (Himachal Pradesh). [ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA; GERMPLASM; PLYBOARD]

Growing demand of Poplar wood for manufacture of fruit boxes, plyboard, match sticks due to its fast growth and colourless wood have led to extensive plantation of this species. This has resulted in severe outbreak of a number of diseases. Alternaria alternata is one of the most destructive pathogens of Populus species in nurseries resulting in premature defoliation. During 1997, an experiment was conducted to assess 232 different clones/hybrids of P. ciliata and P. deltoides against A. alternata. Out of 29 clones and 75 hybrids of P. ciliata,3 clones and 22 hybrids remained free from the disease. In 11 clones and 2 hybrids of P. ciliata, disease reaction varied from resistant to moderately resistant. Out of 73 clones and 7 hybrids of P. deltoides, 64 clones and 7 hybrids remained free from the disease. All the 46 families of P. deltoides screened were found free from the disease.

Sharma, Suman and Bhardwaj, S.D. 1999. Storage of acorns of Quercus leucotrichophora A. cam. ex bahadur. Indian Forester, 125(8): 815-822. Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, H.P., India. [GERMINATION; PLOT DESIGN; POLYBAGS]

Investigations were carried out at Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (H.P.), India, to find out suitable storage method(s). The freshly collected acorns were put in storage at 5±1oC, 10±1oC and room temperature in polybags, canvas bags and tin containers laid out in Split Plot Design with three replications and storage longevity was determined by subjecting the acorns to germinability studies. The acorns stored at 5±1oC in polybags was proved to be the suitable method for better longevity of acorns maintaining a maximum of 90 per cent germination for consecutive nine months and thereafter declined slightly maintaining 51.16 per cent germination after fifteen months of storage as compared to all other interactions. However, the seed stored at room temperature in tin containers proved to be least effective and lost its viability after three months of storage.

Shukla, B.K.; Singh, P. and Chauhan, A.S. 1998. Orchid diversity in Sikkim and its conservation. J. Orchid Soc. India, 12(1-2): 53-76. Botanical Survey of India, Sikkim Himalayan Circle, Gangtok 737103, India. [ALTITUDINAL ZONE; BIODIVERSITY; CONSERVATION STRATEGY; ENDEMIC ORCHID]

Orchidaceae, the second largest family of flowering plants in the world, show remarkable diversity in this smallest Himalayan state. Out of 184 genera and about 1200 species reported from India, 115 genera and about 496 species are represented in this region. The present paper elucidates correct nomenclature, phenological data, range of distribution and phytogeographical affinities of orchid species, reported from Sikkim so far. Diversity of orchids in different altitudinal zones has also been discussed. Bulbophyllum, Dendrobium, Eria, Liparis and Oberonia are the dominent genera in Sikkim whereas 88 genera like Acrachaene, Amitostrgma, Androcorys, Anthyogonium, Arundina, Bletilla, Neottia are represented by a single species each. Interestingly, 37 species are endemic to this state and there are several species which exhibit wide transoceanic distribution. Overexploitation of a number of species for horticultural purpose and destruction of their natural habitats have contributed to the depletion of biodiversity of many species, several species of orchids are threatened with extinction. Conservation strategy for such species has also been discussed.

Singh, Anoop; Kuniyal, C.P.; Lata, Hemant; Rajasekaran, C.; Prasad, P.; Bhadula, S.K. and Purohit, A.N. 1998. In vitro propagation of Aconitum Atrox (Bruhl). Muk, A threatened medicinal herb from Garhwal Himalaya. Physiology & Molecular Biology of Plants, 4(): 171-174. G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Garhwal Unit, P.O. 92, Srinagar 246174, U.P., India; High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre, P.O. 14 Srinagar 246174, U.P., India. [CALLUS CULTURE; MEDICINAL HERB; SEEDLING; SOMATIC EMBRYO; TUBEROUS ROOTS]

Culture conditions for Aconitum atrox (Bruhl). Muk., a threatened medicinal species from Garhwal Himalaya were established. Young leaf explants and lateral buds were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.8 mg/L of BAP and NAA each. After three weeks, callus induction and excellent growth of creamish-brown calli was observed from leaf explants collected from mature plants and seedlings. Subculturing of calli derived from leaves showed the formation of whitish green globular somatic embryos, lateral tuberous roots and shoots. The lateral buds and shoot tips also showed callus induction and multiple shoots, but only a few roots were observed.

Singh, Arun P. 1999. New forest, Dehradun, India: A unique man-made habitat for butterflies in the lower western Himalayas. Indian Forester, 125(9): 913-922. Division of Forest Entomology, Forest Research Institute, (I.C.F.R.E.), Dehradun, India. [BUTTERFLY; FOOD PLANT; HABITAT]

Butterflies were collected for six years from New Forest campus which is a man-made habitat covering an area of 4.45 km2 and located at Dehradun in Northern India. The aim of the study was to know butterfly species composition of this artificial habitat in relation to the Western Himalayas and also the number of larval food plant species of butterflies supported by this habitat. A total of 148 species belonging to 10 families and sub-families were found in New Forest which was one-third of the total found in the region. Three species found were `rare' as listed in the Schedule II of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act (1972, amended 1989). Larval food plants for all the butterfly species were present in New Forest. The proportions all the butterfly species in the families found here were in constancy with the region and were more closely related to the Western Himalaya, as compared to the Central Himalaya or the entire Indian Sub-Continent. All these findings suggest that New Forest provides a refuge for a large number of butterfly species found in the region, depicting a point diversity.

Singh, Jagdish and Dhiman, R.C. 1999. Effect of weed control on the growth of Populus deltoides G3 at nursery stage. Indian Forester, 125(8): 803-806. Division of Extension, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. [COLLAR DIAMETER; GLYPHOSATE; POPULUS DELTOIDES; WEED CONTROL]

Weed control program has considerably enhanced the growth of Populus deltoides G3 at the nursery stage. Though T4 (manual weeding), was the best method to control weed, but it is labour intensive and costly T2 - (Glyphosate-4 application), at the rate of 5 ml diluted in 1 litre of water was also found equally good; thus it is recommended where there is labour scarcity.

Singh, N.V.; Sharma, R.C. and Chhimwal, C.B. 1999. Evolution of genetically superior new clones of poplar (POPULUS DELTOIDES) for Tarai region. Indian Forester, 125(3): 301-304. Sal Region, U.P. Forest Department, Haldwani (U.P.). [AGROFORESTRY; CLONE; POPULUS DELTOIDES]

The results of experiments conducted to establish superiority of newly evolved clones of Poplar (Polulus deltoides) over exotic clones has been described in this paper.

Singh, Punam and Mehrotra, Arushi 1999. Seed borne fungi of two medicinal plants and their control. Journal of Non-Timber Forests Products, 6(1/2): 63-66. Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248006, India. [FUNGICIDES; MEDICINAL PLANTS; MYCOFLORA; SEED BORNE FUNGI]

Seed borne fungi of two medicinal plants namely Withania somnifera and Solanum khasianum were studied. Seed mycoflora of W. somnifera comprised Fusarium solani, F.avenaceum, Fusarium sp., Alternaria alternata and Curvularia lunata whereas seed mycoflora of S. khasianum included F. avenaceum, Fusarium Sp., A. alternata, C. lunata and three unidentified fungi. Fusarium avenaceum was the predominant seed borne fungus in both the cases. Emisan proved highly effective against seed mycoflora of W. somnifera and S. khasianum followed by Bavistin, Thiram, Dithane M-45 and Copper oxychloride. However, Copper oxychloride was almost ineffective in case of W. somnifera.

Thakur, I.K. 1999. Vegetative propagation studies in ELM (Ulmus wallichiana planch)- A tree of high economic value. Journal of Non-Timber Forests Products, 6(1/2): 71-73. Department of Tree Improvement & Genetic Resources, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni, Solan 173230, H.P., India. [ROOTING BEHAVIOUR; STEM CUTTING; ULMUS WALLICHIANA]

The present paper reports on the effect of auxins on rooting behaviour of stem cuttings of Ulmus wallichiana in the Western Himalayas. Maximum callusing (74.60%) was obtained with 1000 ppm of IAA treatment, whereas highest rooting percentage (64.93%) was recorded in 2000 ppm IBA treated cuttings. Shoot length was observed highest (167.11 cm) with 2000 ppm IBA treatment and lowest in 3000 ppm NAA treated cutting. However, a non-significant difference was noticed among different auxin concentrations for root shoot ratio.

Thomas, Sunny; Haridasan, K. and Borthakur, S.K. 1998. Ethnobotanical observations on rattan palms among Adi and Nishing tribes in Arunachal Pradesh. Ethnobotany, 10(1&2): 22-26. Systematic Botany Division, State Forest Research Institute, Itanagar 791111, Arunachal Pradesh, India. [ADI; ARUNACHAL PRADESH; ETHNOBOTANY; NISHING; RATTAN PALMS]

Arunachal Pradesh, the biodiversity-rich state in north east India is inhabited by about 25 major tribes with rich culture and traditions. The ethnobotanical importance of rattan palms in Arunachal Pradesh is described here.

Thomas, Sunny; Haridasan, K. and Borthakur, S.K. 1999. ZALCCA SECUNDA - A stemless rattan palm from Arunachal Pradesh. Indian Forester, 125(2): 230-232. Systematic Botany Division, State Forest Research Institute, Itanagar (Arunachal Pradesh); Reader, Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Guwahati (Assam). [ARUNACHAL PRADESH; CONSERVATION; ZALACCA SECUNDA]

Zalacca secunda - a stemless rattan was located during a taxonomic survey from the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh. The paper describes the characteristic features of the genus Zalacca and the species Z. secunda from Arunachal Pradesh.

Tripathi, Sunil and Prakash, Ved 1998. Studies on zingiberaceae lindley of N.E. India: I. On the re-discovery on Rhynchanthus longiflorus Hook. f. Indian Journal of Forestry, 21(4): 333-336. Botany Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001. [DIVERSITY; LEAF-SHOOT; RHYNCHANTHUS LONGIFLORUS]

The North-eastern region of India has maximum diversity of Zingiberaceae in having 19 genera and about 90 species from among 22 genera and 180 species known from India. The present communication on the genus Rhynchanthus Hook f., is the outcome of our critical taxonomic studies initiated recently on this family. This genus is known in India by only its type species (viz. R. longiflorus Hook. f.) from the Mizoram after Fischer's report (1932) and is based on our collection after more than six decades, which represents to be the first one for Indian herbaria. The genus is characterised by a boat-shaped stamen, obsolete or minute labellum and absence of lateral staminodes. The study further reveals the interesting characters of the genus and its close affinity with Hedychieae rather than with the Alpinieae to which it is generally assigned. It is described here with illustration.

Tyagi, P.C.; Agarwal, M.C. and Kumar, Nirmal 1999. Provenance variation in seed parameters and germination of Grewia optiva drummond. Indian Forester, 125(5): 517-521. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Dehradun, India. [GENETIC VARIATION; GERMINATION; GREWIA OPTIVA; REGRESSION EQUATION]

Statistical computation on seed traits and germination of the provenances revealed the existence of genetic variability. The correlation between different pairs of characters were determined and observed highly significant. The multiple regression equation using step-down regression technique revealed that the seed length and 100-seed weight might be used as the predictors of germination in Grewia optiva.

Uniyal, Kamla 1999. Collar rot in Azadirachta indica and its control. Indian Forester, 125(5): 513-516. Forest Pathology Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, U.P., India. [AZADIRACHTA INDICA; COLLAR ROT; FUNGICIDES; SEEDLING]

During surveillance of nursery diseases a seedling disease causing collar rot in Azadirachta indica caused by Fusarium semitectum was recorded for the first time from Satyanarain nursery at Dehradun causing 3 to 66 per cent mortality in 2 to 3 months old seedlings. Pathogenicity of fungus was tested and effect of different fungicides was tested on the growth of the pathogen in vitro. Ziram and Bavistin were found most effective in checking the pathogen.

Usman, Samina; Rawat, Y.S. and Singh, S.P. 1998. Mineralization and inorganic-N uptake in chir pine forest of Central Himalaya. Tropical Ecology, 39(2): 193-199. Department of Botany, Kumaun University, Nainital 263002, India. [AMMONIUM-N; FOREST SOILS; N-MINERALIZATION]

Net N-mineralization and nitrification rates were measured by in situ incubation of soil in a needle leaf forest in central Himalaya. The seasonal pattern for both nitrification and ammonification was similar. Rainy season conditions were more favourable for N-mineralization. The size of the available nitrogen pool ranged from 8-30 ug g-1 with maximum values in the dry period (summer season) and minimum values during the wet period (rainy season). The trend for N-mineralization rate was opposite to that of the size of the available N.

Verma, K.S. and Mishra, V.K. 1999. Foliage nutrient concentration and lopping time of agroforestry tree species in the Western Himalayan region of India. Agroforestry Systems, 42(): 283-290. Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni-Solan, 173230, H.P., India. [ACTIVE GROWTH SEASON; ALBIZIA STIPULATA; LOPPING TIME; OUGENIA OOJEINENSIS]

Tree foliage is a nutrient-rich and important source of green fodder to sustain the live-stock during the lean winter period of a season in the low and mid hill regions of Indian Himalaya. Knowledge of the variations in mineral nutrient composition of the foliage during an active growth season helps in determining optimum lopping time to harvest nutrient-rich fodder. Changes in the nutrient concentrations of Albizia stipulata and Ougenia oojeinensis foliage during the annual growth season were studied to find out an optimum lopping time. Two dissimilar trends in variation of nutrients in foliage with the advancement of growth season were observed. These were: (1) depletion/dilution of N, P, K and S and (2) accumulation of Ca, Mg and Na. The depletion was more from October onwards, and accumulation reached to its maximum in November-December. Therefore, the period from October to December, preferably November, can be regarded as optimum lopping time for A. stipulata For O. oojeinensis the corresponding time could be September to November, preferably. Ougenia foliage contained higher concentration of N, P, Ca, Mg, and Na than that of Albizia.

Vij, S.P.; Jalota, Rajesh K. and Gupta, Ashish 1998. Distribution pattern and substratum analysis of Shimla Hill Orchids. J. Orchid Soc. India, 12(1-2): 15-28. Orchid laboratory, Botany Department, Punjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India. [EVERGREEN FOREST; ORCHID FLORA; SOIL PROFILE; SUBSTRATUM ANALYSIS]

The distribution pattern and substratum analysis of twenty ground growing species of orchids from Shimla hills was presently studied. The orchids were primarily found on north facing hills. On the basis of growth and distribution frequency of orchids, open grassy and/or gravely slopes; semi-shaded to shaded, humus-rich and moist forest floors; and disturbed situations along forest borders and road embankments were identified as orchid habitats. The orchids inhabiting open areas showed preference for lesser humidity, more light, and quick water drain-off whereas those inhabiting the shaded areas required humus-rich substratum and a regular supply of moisture, with less exposure to direct sunlight. The orchids in general, cohabited with a variety of vegetation; the shade-loving ones grew in association with ferns, whereas the light-loving ones grew with mosses, liverworts, and lichens. The soils in different localities varied in their texture as well as in their moisture and nutrient contents besides pH and conductivity. The adaptability of orchids to soils variously rich in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium suggested that these elements are important for their growth and development, and that the requirement is species specific.


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This page is part of ENVIS Bulletin vol 7 no. 2.  In case you have any questions contact: Scientist In-charge, Environmental Information System on Himalayan Ecology, G.B.Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora 263 643, Uttaranchal, India.