POPULATION DISTRIBUTION
Content Index

Table 2. Distribution of human population: states ranked according to the population size (1991 census)
 
State
Population
Average no. of person per household
% share of India's total population
% share of Indian Himalayan population
JAMMU & KASHMIR*
7718700
6.37$
0.91
25.33
UTTAR PRADESH HILLS
5926146
5.22
0.70
19.45
HIMACHAL PRADESH
5170877
5.34
0.61
16.97
TRIPURA
2757205
5.24
0.33
9.05
MANIPUR
1837149
6.19
0.22
6.03
MEGHALAYA
1774778
5.42
0.21
5.82
WEST BENGAL HILLS
1299919
5.33
0.15
4.27
NAGALAND
1209546
5.57
0.14
3.97
ARUNACHAL PRADESH
864558
4.93
0.10
2.84
ASSAM HILLS
813524
5.69
0.10
2.67
MIZORAM
689753
5.70
0.08
2.26
SIKKIM
406457
5.33
0.05
1.33

*Since the 1991 census was not conducted in Jammu & Kashmir, these are projected population figures as per the Standing Committee of Experts set up by Government of India, October 1989; $ derived from 1981 census

Figure 3. Human population and decadel growth rate of four decades in Indian Himalayan Region

Figure 4. Population distribution of 12 administrative regions according to 1991 census

Figure 5. Percentage share of population of 12 administrative regions in total population of Indian Himalaya

The population density of the country has increased from 207.87 in 1981 to 257.45 persons/km2 in 1991 with a decadal (1981-91) growth rate of 23.85%. While the sex ratio (females per 1000 males) has decreased from 934 in 1981 to 927 in 1991. The average population density of the Himalayan region in India is 74.24# persons/km2, which is much less than the nation's density, while the decadal growth rate of the region is 29.05%, which is much higher than nationís average. Density, sex ratio and decadal growth of the states ranked according to the population density is given below.

Table 3. Population density, sex ratio, decal growth rate: states are ranked according to the population density
 
State
Density (1991) persons/km2
Sex ratio (1991) females/1000 males
Decal variation (1981-91) in %
% change in decal growth rate (1981-91 over 1971-81)
WEST BENGAL HILLS
412.80
914
26.91
-4.11
TRIPURA
262.82
945
34.30
2.38
UTTAR PRADESH HILLS
115.92
955
22.55
-3.97
HIMACHAL PRADESH
92.88
976
20.79
-2.92
MANIPUR
82.28
958
29.29
-3.17
MEGHALAYA
79.13
955
32.86
0.82
JAMMU & KASHMIR
76.13$
923
28.92
-0.77
NAGALAND
72.96
886
56.08
6.03
SIKKIM
57.28
878
28.47
-22.3
ASSAM HILLS
53.10
897
N.A.
N.A.
MIZORAM
32.72
921
39.69
-8.86
ARUNACHAL PRADESH
10.32
859
36.83
1.68

$Density has been worked out on comparable area of Jammu & Kashmir

The decadal growth rate of population of Nagaland, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, and Meghalaya shows an increasing trend in 1991 census over 1981 census. Among these states the decadal growth rate of Tripura is alarming as it is both higher than that of the other states in the region and also marginally higher than the countryís population density. The population density of West Bengal Hills is highest with a declining growth rate over past two decades. The moderate density region of Himalaya, i.e. Uttar Pradesh Hills, Himachal Pradesh, and Manipur represent a declining growth rate in 1991 over 1981 census. The low density regions of Himalaya i.e. Sikkim, Assam hills, Jammu & Kashmir, Mizoram, and Arunachal Pradesh represent a negative trend in growth rate, except Arunachal Pradesh having lowest density in the country with a increasing growth rate.

Three-year moving average of birth rates, death rates, and infant mortality rates (figures are per 1000) of Himalayan states, 1988-90 and 1991-93 are given in the following table.

Table 4. Birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate of Himalayan states: states are ranked according to the declining rate of birth rate.
 
States
Birth rate
Death Rate
Infant Mortality Rate
1988-90
1991-93
% decline
1988-90
1991-93
% decline
1988-90
1991-93
% decline
SIKKIM
30.4
22.8
25.00
8.8
6.7
23.86
71
45
36.62
ARUNACHAL PRADESH
35.2
28.5
19.03
14.8
10.5
29.05
87
58
33.33
MANIPUR
23.2
20.1
13.36
6.5
5.3
18.46
35
22
37.14
MEGHALAYA
34.0
30.2
11.18
9.6
8
16.67
58
53
8.62
TRIPURA
25.7
23.6
8.17
7.6
7.1
6.58
53
49
7.55
HIMACHAL PRADESH
29.1
27.8
4.47
8.9
8.8
1.12
75
68
9.33
NAGALAND
19.3
19.2
0.52
4.4
3.9
11.36
19
7
63.16
JAMMU & KASHMIR
31.5
N.A.
-
8
N.A.
-
69
N.A.
-

Time-series data for Assam, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal Hills, and Mizoram are not available

All the states are showing a marginally lower birth rate than that of all-India figure, which is 28.7 in 1993 resulting a lower decadal population growth in Indian Himalaya. The death rate of all the states has also declined significantly and expectation of life at birth is more than 60 years at national level.

Rural Population

The Indian Himalayan region is mainly rural. According to the 1991 census the rural population of India is 62,86,91,676, constituting 74.29% of the total population. The percentage of rural population has gradually decreased from 89.2% in 1901 to 74.29% in 1991. The decadal rate of urbanisation is 2.57% during the last three decades which is very high as compared to the urbanisation rate of pre-independent India. The total rural population inhabiting the Himalayan region of the country is 2,44,61,849, or 80.29% of its total population. Though the percentage is much higher than the all-India figure (74.29%), it contributes only 3.89% of total rural population of the country. The rural population of Himalayan states (ranked according to the absolute number of rural population) is given in the table 5.

Table 5. Distribution of rural population: states are ranked according to the size of rural population (1991 census)
 
State
Rural population
Rural population (as % of the state)
% share of rural population in India
% share of rural population of Indian Himalaya
JAMMU & KASHMIR#
5879300
76.17
0.94
24.03
HIMACHAL PRADESH
4721681
91.31
0.75
19.30
UTTAR PRADESH HILLS
4640204
78.30
0.74
18.97
TRIPURA
2335484
84.70
0.37
9.55
MEGHALAYA
1444731
81.40
0.23
5.91
MANIPUR
1331504
72.48
0.21
5.44
NAGALAND
1001323
82.79
0.16
4.09
WEST BENGAL HILLS
903859
69.53
0.14
3.69
ARUNACHAL PRADES
753930
87.20
0.12
3.08
ASSAM HILLS
708572
87.10
0.11
2.90
MIZORAM
371810
53.90
0.06
1.52
SIKKIM
369451
90.90
0.06
1.51

 

Content Index

This page is part of ENVIS Monograph No. 2.  In case you have any questions contact: Scientist In-charge, ENVironmental Information System on Himalayan Ecology, G.B.Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora 263 643, Uttaranchal, India.